What Is Insulin?

Man needs energy to work. Human beings get this energy from protein carbohydrates and fatty food. Whatever we eat, that changes in Glucose
and glucose enters the cell where glucose is converted into energy. Insulin determines the pathway for glucose to enter the cell, which is a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin is like a key that opens the cell door.
If our body is low in insulin or not,glucose cannot open the cell door, leading to elevated glucose levels which cause glucose to be collected in the blood which cannot be converted into energy and The level of glucose in the blood rises, causing severe heart, kidney and eye problems. The nervous system is also affected.
When diet and exercise are not sufficient to control blood sugar, and the pancreas unable to produce insulin, the body needs insulin from outside. Many diabetic patients rely on external insulin injections to control their blood sugar.
There are several types of insulin. All insulin helps glucose go into the cell so that glucose can be converted into energy, but they are not all the same. Each insulin type may vary. It depends on how fast insulin works, how long it takes to start working, and how long it takes to control blood sugar, and how long it stays in the body.

Insulin therapy
At present insulin therapy can be started by any of the following methods like Insulin Injections , Insulin jets, Insulin Infusion Pumps, Insulin Spray, Insulin Nose Spray, Insulin Pulmonary Spray, Oral Insulin Spray.

To understand the types of insulin It is important to know the following terms.
• Onset -Time after insulin injection when insulin starts work.
• Peak – Time after insulin injection when insulin show Maximum Effect.
• Duration – Time after insulin injection when insulin continues to work inside the body.
• Rapid-Acting Insulin Should be Administerd within 15 minutes before a meal or eat within 5-15 minutes after injection.
• Short-Acting insulin shows effect within 30 minutes. The max effect is between 2.5 hours to 5 hours. The duration is approximately 8 hours.
• Intermediate-Acting Insulin gives effect within 90 minutes of injection. The maximum blood sugar lowering effect is between 4 hours to 12 hours after the injection. This blood sugar lowering may last up to 24 hours.
• Long-Acting Insulin Provides slow steady release of insulin. Duration may be up to 24 hours.
• Ultralong-Acting Insulin has an onset of action of 30–90 minutes and has a duration of action that lasts up to 42 hours.

Types Of Insulin

Rapid-Acting Insulin:

• insulin (oral inhalation)
• insulin aspart
• insulin glulisine
• insulin lispro
• insulin lispro (U-200)

Short-Acting Insulin:

• insulin regular
• insulin regular (U-500)

Intermediate-Acting Insulin:

• Insulin Zinc Suspension (Lente insulin)
• Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin (Isophane insulin)

Long-Acting Insulin:

• insulin detemir
• insulin glargine
• insulin glargine (U-300)

Ultralong-Acting Insulin:

• Insulin degludac
• Insulin degludac (U-200)

Glucagon-Like Peptide -1 Receptor Agonists:

• Exenatide
• Liraglutide

Amylin Analogue

• Pramlintide

Side Effects of insulin Injection

• Hypoglycemia
• Skin allergies such as itching and swelling .
• Skin irritation or inflammation on injection site from the injection needle.

Brands Available in India

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Wosulin N , Wosulin R , Zinulin