- 1 Edited By - Pharmacist DC Srivastava (B.Pharm)
- 1.0.1 Type 1 Diabetes
- 1.0.2 Insulin Therapy For Type 1 Diabetes
- 1.0.3 Insulin Side Effects
- 1.0.4 Insulin Secretagogues
- 1.0.5 Classification of Insulin Secretagogues
- 1.1 Do you have diabetes type 2 then this information is for you
- 1.1.2 Type 2 Diabetes
- 1.1.3 Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
- 1.1.4 Why do we get Type 2 Diabetes ?
- 1.1.5 Insulin Resistance
- 1.1.6 Risk Factor For Type 2 Diabetes
- 1.1.7 What health problems can people with Type 2 Diabetes develop?
- 1.1.8 How Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed ?
- 1.1.9 Blood Sugar Test Chart
- 1.1.10 HbA1c test Chart
- 1.1.11 Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
- 1.1.12 What Medicines do Patients Need to treat Type 2 Diabetes?
- 1.1.13 Oral Medicines – Oral Antidiabetic Medicines
- 1.1.14 Insulin Shock
Type 1 Diabetes
Welcome To Diabetes Touch
Edited By - Pharmacist DC Srivastava (B.Pharm)
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which your pancreas does not produce insulin properly, your body needs insulin to maintain blood sugar levels. When you eat foods, the small intestine chemicals break them down into single sugars molecules called glucose. The cells of the small intestine then absorb glucose, which then passes into the bloodstream.
When the blood reaches your pancreas, the beta cells inside the pancreas detect increased levels of glucose, and the beta cells secrete insulin, which causes glucose levels in the bloodstream to decrease and your blood sugar reaches to a healthy limit.
Most cells of the body have some receptors on the surface that bind to circulating insulin. Insulin acts like a key to open the cell so that circulating glucose can enter the cell. Now body cells can utilize the glucose to produce the energy it needs to function properly. If you have type one diabetes, your pancreatic beta cells lose their ability to produce insulin, resulting in high blood sugar levels and other complications.
In type 1 diabetes, your immune system begins to mistake your pancreatic beta cells specifically for your white blood cells, foreign invaders. As a result, in an auto immune response, your white blood cells secrete auto antibodies that destroy your own beta cells.
Because of which your pancreas is unable to produce very little or no insulin. Without insulin, glucose cannot get into your cells, so they starve for the calories they should have gotten from glucose.In addition, the level of glucose in your bloodstream increases, resulting in a condition called hyperglycemia. This disease usually occurs in children and young people, so it is also called juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes.
Insulin Therapy For Type 1 Diabetes
Rapid Acting Insulin
- Insulin Lispro
- Insulin Aspart
- Insulin Glulisine
Short acting Insulin
- Regular Soluble Insulin
Intermediate Acting Insulin
- Insulin Zinc Suspension – Lente Insulin
- Neutral Protamine Hagedorn – Isophane Insulin
Long acting Insulin
- Insulin Detemir
- Insulin Glargine
Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists
Insulin Side Effects
- Flu Like Symptoms
- Low Blood Sugar – Hypoglycemia
- Weight Gain
- Scars,lumps and Rash at Injection Site
It Stimulate insulin release from B cells by blocking of ATP-sensitive K channels resulting in depolarization and calcium influx (Hence, it is not effective in totally insulin-deficient type-1 Diabetes patient.
Classification of Insulin Secretagogues
Do you have diabetes type 2 then this information is for you
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Type 2 diabetes is mostly found in people aged 40 years or more. But it can happen sometimes or quickly. Type 2 diabetes occurs in two conditions.
1- To maintain sugar at normal level when insulin is not being produced in sufficient quantity.
2- Insulin is produced in sufficient quantity in the body but the body is unable to use insulin properly. This condition is called insulin resistance.People with a family history of obesity are at risk of diabetes type 2.Insulin becomes important for people who are obese and their weight is increasing abnormally to keep their sugar levels normal.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is also called silent killer because very often its symptoms are not clear or understandable and even if there is some difficulty, then the patient does not take it seriously, and by the time it is detected, the disease will be very harmful. is. But do not do this, if you are feeling any of these symptoms, then check your blood sugar as soon as possible.
More hunger and more fatigue
Excessive urination and thirst
Sudden weight gain or weight loss
nausea and vomiting and dry mouth
Yeast or fungal infection and itching
Wound healing, wound and swelling of gums
Tingling in the extremities / numbness in the extremities
Why do we get Type 2 Diabetes ?
Obesity gives rise to many diseases, one of them is diabetes, so it is important for everyone not to let obesity on their body. It is important to control your obesity. Poor nutrition can lead to diabetes type 2, people who eat sweets made of sugar or good, junk food, fast food, cold drinks etc. irregularly fall victim to this disease. Because when you eat more sweet things, the amount of glucose starts increasing in the body. Due to disturbance in the pancreas, the quantity of insulin starts to decrease, due to which there is a problem in glucose metabolism, which causes diabetes.
Man needs energy to work. Human beings get this energy from protein carbohydrates and fatty food. Everything we eat is converted into glucose and glucose enters the cell where food is converted into energy. Insulin determines the pathway for glucose to enter the cell, a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas.
Insulin is a key that opens the cell door. If our body is low in insulin or not, then glucose cannot open the door that enters the cell, causing glucose levels in the blood to be elevated when there is not enough insulin to open the lock of the glucose in the blood. Gets collected which does not turn into energy. High levels of glucose in the blood cause serious problems in the body. This condition is called insulin resistance.
Risk Factor For Type 2 Diabetes
Older Age 40 Years Or Above
Sedentary Life Style
Obesity ( BMI>30 )
High Blood pressure
Family History Of Diabetes
What health problems can people with Type 2 Diabetes develop?
The Effects of Type 2 Diabetes On Your Body
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Damaged Blood Vessels
Dry Cracked Skin
Gastroparesis – delayed gastric emptying
High Blood Pressure
Lack Of Energy & Fatigue
Loss Of Consciousness
Presence Of Protein in the Urine
Risk of Heart Disease
Risk Of Infections like Yeast, Bacterial, and Fungal
Risk of stroke
Sexual and Bladder problems
Sweet smelling Breath
How Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed ?
There Are Following Test Which is used For Diabetes
- HbA1C Test
- Random Blood Sugar Test
- Fasting Blood Sugar Test
- Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
- Test For Gestational Diabetes
- Urine Test For Diabetes Type-1
- Fastng Plasma Glucose Test (FPG)
- Random Plasma Glucose Test (RPG)
- Insulin Auto Antibodies Test (IAA)
- Glycated Hemoglobin Test
Blood Sugar Test Chart
Blood Sugar In Fasting
100 -125 mg/dl
Diabetes Type 2
126 mg/dl or Higher
Blood Sugar after 2 hours Meal
Less Than 140 mg/dl
Diabetes Type 2
200 mg/dl or Higher
HbA1c test Chart
4 % – 5.6 %
5.7 % – 6.4 %
Diabetes Type 2
6.5 % or Higher
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
- Change Lifestyle and Make Balance Lifestyle
- Weight loss
- Healthy Eating
- Regular Exercise and yoga
- Regular health check up
- Regular blood glucose Monitoring
What Medicines do Patients Need to treat Type 2 Diabetes?
- Oral Medicines – Oral Antidiabetic Medicines
- Insulin Therapy
Oral Medicines – Oral Antidiabetic Medicines
Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors
Biguanide (AMP k- Activator)
Dopamine D2 Agonist
Although insulin is a very unique medicine for diabetes patients, it should be used very carefully, if a patient takes too much insulin, then the blood sugar level will be reduced completely, which can endanger the life of the patient, more If insulin is taken in quantity then the following symptoms may appear in the patient
- Low Blood Sugar Level
- Mild Confusion
- Muscle Twitching
- Excessive Yawning
- Pale skin
Note – People with Type 1 Diabetes Patients are advised to carry 15-20 gm of Quick acting carbohydrates such as Glucose powder or Glucose containing Drinks.
Contents of diabetestouch.com are for informational purposes only and not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you are suffering with any medical condition, Please meet your physician or Pharmacist with your questions.
Author & Editor
D.C. Srivastava (B.Pharm) India