Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHA)

Diabetes Medicines Search Here. Note – You should not take any medicine unless your doctor advises you to do so.

Welcome To Diabetes Touch

Edited By - Pharmacist DC Srivastava (B.Pharm)

Oral Hypoglycemic agents lower glucose levels in the blood. They are commonly used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus Type 2. There are now four classes of hypoglycemic drugs which are known as OHA.

  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
  • Metformin
  • Sulfonylureas
  • Thiazolidinediones

Do you have diabetes type 2 then this information is for you


Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Type 2 diabetes is mostly found in people aged 40 years or more. But it can happen sometimes or quickly. Type 2 diabetes occurs in two conditions.

1- To maintain sugar at normal level when insulin is not being produced in sufficient quantity.

2- Insulin is produced in sufficient quantity in the body but the body is unable to use insulin properly. This condition is called insulin resistance.People with a family history of obesity are at risk of diabetes type 2.Insulin becomes important for people who are obese and their weight is increasing abnormally to keep their sugar levels normal.

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is also called silent killer because very often its symptoms are not clear or understandable and even if there is some difficulty, then the patient does not take it seriously, and by the time it is detected, the disease will be very harmful. is. But do not do this, if you are feeling any of these symptoms, then check your blood sugar as soon as possible.

More hunger and more fatigue

Excessive urination and thirst

Sudden weight gain or weight loss

nausea and vomiting and dry mouth

Blurred vision

Yeast or fungal infection and itching

Wound healing, wound and swelling of gums

Tingling in the extremities / numbness in the extremities

Why do we get Type 2 Diabetes ?

Obesity gives rise to many diseases, one of them is diabetes, so it is important for everyone not to let obesity on their body. It is important to control your obesity. Poor nutrition can lead to diabetes type 2, people who eat sweets made of sugar or good, junk food, fast food, cold drinks etc. irregularly fall victim to this disease. Because when you eat more sweet things, the amount of glucose starts increasing in the body. Due to disturbance in the pancreas, the quantity of insulin starts to decrease, due to which there is a problem in glucose metabolism, which causes diabetes.

Insulin Resistance

Man needs energy to work. Human beings get this energy from protein carbohydrates and fatty food. Everything we eat is converted into glucose and glucose enters the cell where food is converted into energy. Insulin determines the pathway for glucose to enter the cell, a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas.

Insulin is a key that opens the cell door. If our body is low in insulin or not, then glucose cannot open the door that enters the cell, causing glucose levels in the blood to be elevated when there is not enough insulin to open the lock of the glucose in the blood. Gets collected which does not turn into energy. High levels of glucose in the blood cause serious problems in the body. This condition is called insulin resistance.

Risk Factor For Type 2 Diabetes

Older Age 40 Years Or Above


Sedentary Life Style

Physical inactivity

Obesity ( BMI>30 )

High Cholesterol

High Blood pressure

Family History Of Diabetes

What health problems can people with Type 2 Diabetes develop?

The Effects of Type 2 Diabetes On Your Body

Cataracts and Glaucoma

Damaged Blood Vessels

Dry Cracked Skin

Excessive Urination

Extreme Thirst

Foot Problems

Gastroparesis – delayed gastric emptying

High Blood Pressure

Lack Of Energy & Fatigue

Loss Of Consciousness

Nerve Damage

Pancreas Malfunction

Presence Of Protein in the Urine

Risk of Heart Disease

Risk Of Infections like Yeast, Bacterial, and Fungal

Risk of stroke

Sexual and Bladder problems

Sweet smelling Breath

Visual Disturbances

How Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed ?

There Are Following Test Which is used For Diabetes

  • HbA1C Test
  • Random Blood Sugar Test
  • Fasting Blood Sugar Test
  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
  • Test For Gestational Diabetes
  • Urine Test For Diabetes Type-1
  • Fastng Plasma Glucose Test (FPG)
  • Random Plasma Glucose Test (RPG)
  • Insulin Auto Antibodies Test (IAA)
  • Glycated Hemoglobin Test

Blood Sugar Test Chart

Blood Sugar In Fasting


70-99  mg/dl

Pre Diabetes

100 -125 mg/dl

Diabetes Type 2

126 mg/dl or Higher

Blood Sugar after 2 hours Meal


Less Than 140  mg/dl

Pre Diabetes

140-199  mg/dl

Diabetes Type 2

200 mg/dl or Higher

HbA1c test Chart​


4 % – 5.6 %

Pre Diabetes

5.7 % – 6.4 %

Diabetes Type 2

6.5 % or Higher

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

  • Change Lifestyle and Make Balance Lifestyle
  • Weight loss
  • Healthy Eating
  • Regular Exercise and yoga
  • Medication
  • Regular health check up
  • Regular blood glucose Monitoring

What Medicines do Patients Need to treat Type 2 Diabetes?

  • Oral Medicines – Oral Antidiabetic Medicines
  • Insulin Therapy

Oral Medicines – Oral Antidiabetic Medicines


Meglitinide/Phenylalanine Analogues


Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors

Biguanide (AMP k- Activator)

α-Glucosidase Inhibitors

SGLT-2 Inhibitors

Dopamine D2 Agonist

Insulin Therapy

Rapid Acting Insulin

  • Insulin Lispro
  • Insulin Aspart
  • Insulin Glulisine

Short acting Insulin

  • Regular Soluble Insulin

Intermediate Acting Insulin

  • Insulin Zinc Suspension – Lente Insulin
  • Neutral Protamine Hagedorn – Isophane Insulin

Long acting Insulin

  • Insulin Detemir
  • Insulin Glargine

Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists

  • Liraglutide
  • Exenatide

Amylin Analogue

  • Pramlintide    

Insulin Side Effects

  • Flu Like Symptoms
  • Low Blood Sugar – Hypoglycemia
  • Weight Gain
  • Headache
  • Scars,lumps and Rash at Injection Site

Insulin Shock

Although insulin is a very unique medicine for diabetes patients, it should be used very carefully, if a patient takes too much insulin, then the blood sugar level will be reduced completely, which can endanger the life of the patient, more If insulin is taken in quantity then the following symptoms may appear in the patient

  • Low Blood Sugar Level
  • Mild Confusion
  • Sweating
  • Muscle Twitching
  • Excessive Yawning
  • Pale skin

Note –  People with Type 1 Diabetes Patients are advised to carry  15-20 gm of  Quick acting carbohydrates such as Glucose powder or Glucose containing Drinks.

Disclaimer :-

Contents of diabetestouch.com are for informational purposes only and not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you are suffering with any medical condition, Please meet your physician or Pharmacist with your questions.


Author & Editor

D.C. Srivastava (B.Pharm) India